4.' Psychological Consequences of Biological Change^ ^ 17 - ^ . Jpach:«in its own w'ay has great potential for contributing positively to the adolescent's, understanding of the^ nature of biological change taking place within him at adolescence and to the ■' ■ - , ' • •■ ' • ■ ' . It is, how- ever, expected that curriculum planners and designers for the » age groups 12 to 16 interpret the research data of this report in terms of their, own schools and communities, that is, that they provide the "^curricula ,needed to mat'cji :the highly variable and changing characteristics of the \ emerging adolescents and to meet the arange of individual differences which makes -the intermediate ye^fs a unique segment o£ the educational ladder. I wish to express my most sincere gratitude to my colleagues who. Ausubel (J9543 declared it axiomatic that th Ci nature of adolescent development is conditioned by childhood experience.
to cover those topics that could have the most relevance to the cognitive functioning of the^ early adolescent as it relat ; : Thirty-tour modal behaviours* are -delineated on the most numerou$ ^ - ...... ' t No¥th-/^erican middle class), vvith ^important variations for age, sex ? The empirical evidence cited tends to Gd Af Irm the concept ^Of developmental tasks as adjustive ditticuities ■J* P ' ^ * . 4;e^ ^ngining the ens • of adtust-iwe - d i f f-icu M ty an indi^ ■yidual will )^xperience. Within each chapter, and wherever .possible', the educational implicaticfns were brought out as forcefully as one could. It may differ in time, culture, and theo- t retical point of view, the word adolescence derives from the Larln y verb adolescere which means *'to grow up". _ ■ - • ^ sidered d period of transition we are cautioned by Hurlock (1973), Ausubel (1954), and Osterrieth C1969) that it i*§ not di$creet from - and unrelated to childhood.
272 258^ EMPIRICAL BASE FOR THE EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL ADOLESCENTS Variances I • . For some slovv-maturing boys, feelings of inadequacy may persist into later life even after the physical dif- ferences which stimulated the negative about self no longer \ • . Considering the nature of the modal behaviour, it would appear that research is needed to explore variances in sex an^i socio- economic, conditions. Va^riances Age As the adolescent grows, his groups change from iinisexual to " heterosexual (Conger, 1973; Hurlock, 1973; Wattenberg, 1973). ' ' Takin^g into consideration several other' studies (Maccoby, 1966; Coleman, 1961/; Phelps and Horrocks, 1958; Keedy, 1956),. ^ : ' Conger (1973) points out that dating for the early adblescent causes much anxiety.
Psychological Affect of Physiological Changes 22 i. Implications of Piagetian Theory 40 The Need for Curriculum Reform Based on . In Chapter three^ the author's of t^^T report have attempted . The home, school 'and ^eer sub -culture ^ were 'found to play prolninerit roles, often complimentary as well as con- f^Xifet i ng\ 4^. • - ' groups, and (7) sex differences in egocentrism in adolescence. The Meaning of Adolescence Adolescence various jly described depending ujjon the point of view of the observer. of Intellectual Ability", in British Journal of Educational Psych Ol W .
Psychological Affect of Changes in Cognitive Functioning i. ^^Trend^ in Research on Adolescent Cognitive ^ Functioning' .35 iii. II.- GROWTH ANB OTHER PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS AND -EVENTS IN ADOLESCENTS • • - , ^6 1 . that the individual adolescent is operating as -an' efficient biologica'r^ machine within the limits of his/her evolutionary arid environmental backgro un d, is accomplishing those THolt)g ical events that it should he, ^ ; those TH olt)gical lishirig th CTi in an ii and is, furthermore, accomplishing th^ in an integrated mann Sr. which Stem •la.rgely .-Kirom the individual's' growth 'potential and the - ' ■ " " .1 pmands imposed by a .culture. of adolescent fear and drisdain of the school, (4) the affect of changes in cognitive ability on emotional and social welfare, (5) socio-economic dif f eren^ces in self-esteem, (6) the dynamics of peer^ ■ . ■ ■ • ■• '■•^ I assistance in^the preparation, editing and typing of the manuscript invaluable, ^Finally, I wish to ex^i^e^s my apb^feciation to the ^ - ■/ ERIC 15 1 Qverview of ' / Adolescent Growth and Development 1.
Modal Behaviour 29 Dating help§ th e adolescent to develop sorial and inte r- personal skills with the opposite sex as well as to' develop a sense of identity and sexual awareness, (Conger, 1973). with maturity and changes from a purely social lieed for - interaction to one of enjoying being Kith a certain individual (Offer, 1969). In later adolescence, however, the emphasis is dm develop- ing a meaningful relationship. Socio-Economic Boys and girls seldpm date oytside of their own social class, - ' .
A consensus of several different studies locates the average age to begin dating at 14 to 15 years for gir Xs and 15 to- 16 years for boys (Hurlock, 1973; Conger, 1973;' Gold and Douvan, 1969; Douvan and Adeison 1966; Lowrie, 1951). ) study, 77 per cent of th^ boys were dating by their junior year; however, most of them diated irregularly and thought dating mimportant . more « • - concerned With ishared activities and interests than with emotional and intimate aspects of heterosexual relationships* Biehler (1971) found that girls tend to date older boys who are at their saitie ^ EMPIRICAL BASE FOR THfi EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF/NORMAL ADOLESCENTS maturational level. '■*'•/' ' ' , ^ and then only with members of the acljoining class (Conger, 1973). ' ■ /' ■ ' ' ' Ot her-^mpor ta^t-Facgti Jirs-^mi eo^^ — — — In seeking/friends of the opposite sex, adolescents will turn to i4eals formed from their own cultural group. ~ : Brown, D., "Factors Affecting Social Acceptance of High School Students", in School Review .
Implication page 98 102 il3 ■ 118 131 ,131 ^ 134^ III.- EARLY ADOLESCENT COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND INTELI^ECTUAL GROWTH^ - v 1. Cfuantitative Aspects of Cognitive Development During Early Adolescence " . - Twenty-Four Hour Circjadian Alterations Superimposed on the BRAC ■ 128 8 LISTOF TABLES ' JTable ^ p^ge * • - ■ advantageously as a valid and reliable basis f©r decision makingj relative to educational programs intended for the intermediate division. 1, New / * York, Russell Sage Foimdition, 289-322, 1964. and Levovice, S:, Adolescence: Psychosocial Perspectives New York, Basic Books, 1969. , "Soine Theoretical Is^^ in Adult Inte lligence Testing", in Psychological Bulletin , 38.
- Ninety Minutes A^te'rnations of the Basic Rest-Activity Cycle (BRAC) 125 ■ .- • " ^ ■ ' ^ - 5. F., "Family Background, Primary Relationships, and the High School Dropout", in Journal of Marriage and the Family , 5, 218-223, 1965.
Differentiation of Ment'al Abi^lities During Adolescence vd . Cole, Luella, Psychology of Adolescence , New York, Holt, nehart and Winston, 1959.
those most likely to experi- I ence heightened emotionality (Hurlock, 1973; Neiny, 1970; Jersild, 1963; Dunbar, 1958). For boys it can serve as an advantage in reducing the number of f Tustratio TTS^ iir expression of mas cu Unity (Wus^^eii - and Jone ^ , II^Tt Schonfeld, 1950; Jones, 1949). mi^ ^ri - ances were found in this search of .'the' literature^ for this modal behaviour. While the clique is relatively smaller and offers a more intimate setting, the crowd offers a larget social atmo- '^Sphere an^ is primarily responsible for the change from the unisex cliques* of early adolescence to -the hetero- sexual cliques of late adolescence (Conger, 1973; Hur- lock 1973J Dunphy, 1963). C., "The Day and Night Performance of Teleprinter Switchboard Operators", in Occupational Psychology , 23, 1-6,.
'Development of Thought and Language: Vygotsky's Theoretical, Perspective a. General Cdnclusions and Recommendations for Educational Practice ^ page 228 IV.- EMPIRIC/VL BASE FOR THE EM6t I0NAL ANb SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL ADOLESCENTS • • • * '"^ * ' ' • 1, Getieral Introduction ' r 24S ^2, Emotional Development' 2S2 — 252- X ii iii iv V vi vii - Emol J ,13 4". - Aggressive States Inhibitoty States - Fears ' - Inhibitory States - Anxiety and Worry Joyous and Happiness States or" Affectivity Self-Concept Social Development ■ , i. - Histogram of Typical Sleep in Young Adults.....: 121 4. T,, "Sex Differences in the Growth ©f Stature and it^ Component Segments of Hong Kong Chinese Children", in Zietschrift^ fur\ Morphologic und Anthropolog ie, 63(3), 323-340, 1972. S., "Child Rearing and Family Relationship Patterns of th\ Very Poor", in Welfare in Review , 3(1), 9-19, 1965.
Qualitative Aspects of Cognitive Functioniijg During Early Adolescence i. Educational implications of Qualitative Changes in Adolescent Cognitive Functioning iv. Impact of Percepto-Cognitive Styles on , Adolescent Cognitive Functioning il Developmental Trends in Perception ii . Field Dependence-Field Independence As a Cognitive Style 138 138 144 144 147 " 149 153 156 159 162 164 165 168- 181 183 191 197 203 1 207 207 216 220 i t ERIC ' TABLR OF CONTENTS ^Chapter 5. page 1.- Physical Growth and Physiological Development in Adolescence. Arrow s/In die ate Direction of Blood Flow 105 ■* ' • " ( 3.
The approach consisted in developing/ ^ relevant and pertinent syiithesis of information, based on guality research studies, concexning the ^ physical, intellectual, sopial, and emotional characteristics of adolescents in the 12 to Wage group. synthesis as provided in -^is document wi^l bring greater awareness on the part of teachers of the necessity forv implementing educational processeis compatible wit H the need^s and char ACteristics of early adolescence and that, in^ addition, it will serve ^ advantageously as a valid and reliable basi^ for decision making relative to educational programs intended for -ehe intermediate division. (Author) * Documen * materia';|.s n * to obi:ain t * reproducibi * of the micr * via the ERI * responsible ,55c supplied by ts acgu ot avaji red by ERIC include many informal unpublisl^^d ab 16 from other sources. Nevertheless, items of marcfinal lity ate o'ften encounteted and this affects the" g^a^ity ofiche a W hardcopy reproductions" ERIC makes available C Docui^ent Reproduction Service (EDRS) . be ordered^ from: The University of Ottawa Press 65 Hastey Street- Ottawa, Ontario KIN 6N5 / ERIC . For example, winning or losing in a game where they are partners. learns a balance of control to satisfy his own needs while conforming socially^ an'd 4. ^ • \ Woronoff (1962) found that fast-growing girls appeared to have greater, self-confidence and better emotional adjustment than slow- growing girls; however, Jones and Jones (1962) in a study of material collected in the late 30 *s and early 40 *s, before World War II, con- cluded that early maturing was a disadvantage for girls. -( 19 75^ s 1 ow-matur tng ado les een ts^ — There- is— not- such-^ -great -need^ to confoi^ for the slow maturer as there is for his more mature age- mate • Modal Behaviour 28 . Eggman, "Parental Deval^ation: A Protection of Self Esteem", iii Journal of Coimse lling Psychology .