Most of the grammatical and typological features of Spanish are shared with the other Romance languages. The noun and adjective systems exhibit two genders and two numbers, in addition articles and some pronouns and determiners have a neuter gender in singular.
There are about fifty conjugated forms per verb, with 3 tenses: past, present, future; 2 aspects for past: perfective, imperfective; 4 moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, imperative; 3 persons: first, second, third; 2 numbers: singular, plural; 3 verboid forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle.
In this formative stage, Spanish developed a strongly differing variant from its close cousin, Leonese, and, according to some authors, was distinguished by a heavy Basque influence (see Iberian Romance languages).
This distinctive dialect spread to southern Spain with the advance of the , and meanwhile gathered a sizable lexical influence from the Arabic of Al-Andalus, much of it indirectly, through the Romance Mozarabic dialects (some 4,000 Arabic-derived words, make up around 8% of the language today).
Spanish also borrowed a considerable number of words from Arabic, as well as a minor influence from the Germanic Gothic language through the migration of tribes and a period of Visigoth rule in Iberia.
In addition, many more words were borrowed from Latin through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church.
Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages French, Italian, Occitan, Catalan and Sardinian, as well as from Nahuatl, Quechua, and other indigenous languages of the Americas.
Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, author of Don Quixote, is such a well-known reference in the world that Spanish is often called In the twentieth century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the Western Sahara, and to areas of the United States that had not been part of the Spanish Empire, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City.For details on borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language.subir corriendo or salir volando; the respective English equivalents of these examples—'to run up' and 'to fly out'—show that English is, by contrast, "satellite-framed", with mode of locomotion expressed in the verb and direction in an adverbial modifier).Subject/verb inversion is not required in questions, and thus the recognition of declarative or interrogative may depend entirely on intonation. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and by many other international organizations.